HL Menken once famously stated that “the whole goal of practical politics is to intimidate people (and therefore lead them to security) through an endless series of Hobgoblin, most of which are fictional.” I have heard it applied to various government policies over the years, but I have never heard of it being applied to zoning. Yet it is worth considering how well it applies.
What is the long-used hobgoblin to intimidate us into entering the incredibly wide zoning power? Externality, which is simply a negative effect on others that can be supposedly widespread and leads to chaos in the absence of zoning. As Payton Knight writes, “Everyone is afraid that the man next door is going to sell his house for a CVS.” More generally, many echo Dave Cole’s view that “property rights and property values are at stake without zoning.”
Following the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act of 1926, such scary stories have given local governments a wide range of arbitrary powers. “For the purpose of promoting health, safety, morality, or the general welfare of the community,” cities are empowered to control and limit the height, number of stories, and size of buildings and other structures, the percentage of lots that can be occupied, yards, courts and other open Location size, population density and location and use of buildings, structures and land for business, industrial, residential or other purposes. ” And that huge gain was limited only by the ability to say what the government supports for some improvement “in health, safety, morality, or general welfare.” In addition, while a government action may be justified as a “solution” to certain types of damages imposed by one party on the other, it legally allows it to avoid paying compensation to property owners.
Do horror stories really justify the huge power created, which Tim Carter summed up “without zoning approval, you toast?” As Ronald Koss, one of the most insightful observers of history’s regulation, says, “I can’t remember. [a good regulation]… Agriculture is a, zoning is z, these are all bad. “And the process is as questionable as the outcome, once led David Mamet to admit that” any of us who attended the zoning meeting with our property are aware of the urge to cut off all harmful bills and Firearms to go straight. “
Both logic and experience suggest that hobboglin often resembles the emperor’s new attire, and suggests that zoning “solutions” are often much worse than the diseases it cures.
Government planners have not demonstrated a commitment to enabling better social cohesion, providing a basis for zoning that knows how to do it efficiently, or providing stability of expectations. In fact, the opposite is true.
Friedrich Hayek has long argued that central planners cannot do what they set out to do efficiently. The central planning process requires the throwing out of valuable information known only to certain individuals গুরুত্বপূর্ণ important for detailed values, but unknown and unknown to planners এবং and with it, the creation of resources that make such knowledge possible. And zoning is a difficult form of central planning, because effective zoning requires a great deal of detailed and often rapidly changing knowledge, not just about what to do, but about “what, where and why.”
Otherwise the promise of zoning to provide stability of expectation by reducing the existing uncertainty has also failed to materialize. Arguments about exempting zoning requirements to enable large or politically advantageous projects provide good examples. If the planners knew enough to zone wisely, they would not have to reserve property or make huge discounts. But the magnitude of such pre-post changes shows how zoning creates more complexity and high-stack uncertainty rather than stability.
Since the supposed slam-dunk argument for zoning is to prevent widespread “disproportionate” land use chaos that imposes widespread negative “externalities” on others, we must keep in mind that many such externalities do not justify government intervention. Furthermore, marketplace zoning, like shopping malls, is often more effective than government zoning because the prospect of profit provides better incentives than nonprofit planning, and provides a mechanism for eliminating private sector bankruptcy errors, while such zoning errors are reversed. The system does not exist
Imagine that two parties want to use features in a way that will negatively affect each other. If such two-way negative externalities exist, they will not be detected nearby. In such cases, there is no need for anyone to overrule the choices that individuals make for themselves.
Conversely, self-interest leads to the use of locating close to each other when there is a two-way positive externality, no one forces them to do so. Again, zoning is unnecessary.
Furthermore, some uses that can create a large negative appearance for something (e.g., noise and odor from a local garage) impose small negative appearance on those who do not object too much to others and sometimes the positive appearance (e.g., those with unreliable vehicles) The price pays more than the associated disadvantage). It allows people to soothe or solve external problems by voting with their feet in different places more suitable for their taste and situation.
Many external horror stories ignore the way markets effectively deal with problems. We don’t need zoning to keep an adhesive factory away from cluttered areas because land costs are too high to make such projects profitable. No one will do, no one needs to be afraid.
Similarly, I don’t have to worry about the location of a gas station in Cul-de-sac, as it would require a lot of traffic to be profitable. The transport grid makes it unprofitable. Companies in the same industry (for example, Hollywood) often come together to benefit from the macro-economy, which means that those who take on some of the negative externalities are better able to carry those who take on even more positive externalities.
Even in the absence of zoning, the government has maintained a massive leverage on local elections. It controls transport networks and other infrastructure, such as water, sewerage and electricity connections (in fact, it is the mismanagement of their infrastructure, such as incorrect pricing of new sewer connections, that actually causes many so-called failures in the local market). It can impose hazards and other restrictions, which are usually applied without zoning.
Applying private property rights and private options can also make zoning work more efficiently. Harassment laws can handle physical attacks (noise, odors, dust, vibrations, etc.) on property without the need for zoning. Similarly, performance standards to reduce the impact on neighbors (e.g., adding road capacity to reduce traffic congestion or turn lanes) may be much less expensive than the need for different land use segregation requirements. Individually developed communities, as well as restricted agreements, have been shown to be able to effectively internalize externalities and, in contrast to zoning rules, provide more stable expectations by resisting arbitrary changes after the truth. Such voluntary private arrangements also provide a superior mechanism for changing land use if appropriate, without allowing some owners to harm their neighbors (e.g., I cannot sell for alternative use that harms my neighbors, we collectively sell high value land). May agree to. Uses).
Houston, which has no zoning, provides additional evidence that private arrangements do not cause chaos in the absence of government orders. Its land use pattern is similar to other cities, as economic incentives make it more profitable and provide more affordable housing.
In addition to offering a meager price, zoning is often a source of abuse, including the mistreatment of the Chinese people in San Francisco and the redistribution of wealth from political opponents to those who have benefited politically, from blacks to laundry.
Neither the basis nor the promise of zoning is displayed. It gives the government vast powers, which have been used arbitrarily. Self-interest, self-selection and the need for different transport and infrastructure solve many of the frightening stories when property rights are protected. And private communities and voluntary agreements have proven to be able to deal with problems without political strife for abuse and control. Americans should reconsider such options, as zoning costs too much, but kills some of the dangerous hobgoblin used to justify it.